ENVIS Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Thursday, August 13, 2020

Safety and First-aid


- An accident is something which happens suddenly and damages something or injures someone.

- Accidents can occur anywhere- on the road, in the house, at school, offices and other places.




- Immediate help or treatment given to an injured person is called first-aid.

- Always keep a first-aid box handy.

- First aid box must contain- Band aid, Cotton, Antiseptic lotion, Gauze, Small scissors, Burnol, Thermometer, ORS packets, Forceps, Tablets for fever, vomiting, acidity, etc.




1. Bleeding from cuts and wounds

- We get wounds and cuts from sharp objects like knives, blades, etc.

- If the cut is small, wash it with plenty of water using cotton or a clean cloth.

- Wash the wound with a soap and an antiseptic lotion.

- Cover the wound with a clean bandage.

-  If it is a deep wound, wrap a tourniquet above the wound and take the patient to a doctor. The patient may need stitches or a tetanus injection.

- To stop bleeding, raise the wound above the level of the heart to slow the flow of blood to that area.

- When the bleeding stops, clean the wound and apply antiseptic cream and bandage firmly.


2. Bleeding from the Nose or Mouth

- For a nose bleed, sit on a chair with the head forward and pinch your nostril.

- Sit for about 10 minutes and breathe through your mouth.

- For bleeding from the mouth, make the person sit with the head tilted to the sides from which the blood is flowing. Call the doctor immediately.


3. Burns

- Accidents due to fire can cause serious injuries or sometimes even death.

- In case of minor burn injuries, first-aid measures can be taken at home.

- Cool the burnt area with water for 10 minutes or apply ice cubes. It will reduce the heat or even prevent the formation of blisters.

- Apply soothing cream or a paste of baking soda on it to reduce the pain.

- Cover the burns with a bandage or a clean cloth to is and dust away.



- In case of  insect bites, first-aid measures to be taken are:

- Neutralize the effect of sting by applying lime water affected area.

- Apply ice cubes or cold water to reduce pain.

- Apply a paste of baking soda with cold cream on the affected area.

- A soft pad soaked in ammonia water will give relief.

- Apply calamine lotion if there is itching.



- First-aid treatment for a dog bite:

- Wash the wound with a soap.

- Cover the wound with a bandage and rush to a doctor, case of stray dogs, anti-rabies injections must be given.

- In case of stray dogs, anti-rabies injection must be given.



- Snake bites can be poisonous.

- To avoid poison from spreading, tie a tight band or cloth a little above the bite to slow down the spread of poison.

- A cut, half a centimetre wide should be made on the wound with a sharp knife and the blood allowed to flow out so that poison comes out.

- The wound should be sucked and spit out so that the poisonous blood is removed. This has to be done several times by expert only.

- Rush to the hospital.



- Make the fainted person lie down with his head low. This makes extra blood reach his brain.

- Let the person breath fresh air. Do not surround him.



- Electrical appliances are very useful for us but should be handled with care as they can cause injuries.

- Never touch electric gadgets with wet hands as water is a good conductor of electricity.

- In case a person gets a shock, put off the main switch immediately.

- Get the wiring checked.



9. Sprain

- When a joint is twisted severely, resulting in pain and swelling, it is called sprain.

- In case of a sprain in the wrist or ankle, it should not be moved till it heals.

- An elastic bandage can be used to prevent movement.

- On the first day, the sprained part should be soaked in cold water. Second day onwards, warm water should be applied.

- Pain-relieving ointments or sprays such as "Relaxyl" or "lodex" can be applied e on it.


10. Fracture

- If a bone is broken, the related part of the body swells and there is an acute pain while moving.

- The fractured part should not be moved.

- Tie a splint to support the broken bone.

- In case of a broken arm, make a sling with a bandage to avoid movement.

- Avoid further dislocation and take the patient to an orthopedic doctor.



11. Heat Stroke

When a person suffers from heat stroke, his body temperature rises very high and skin becomes red with no sweating.

- First-aid measures:

- Lower body temperature by loosening the clothes and airing the person.

- Put ice pack on the neck and under the armpits.

- Make him drink lots of fluids.

- Keep him away from hot places.




- Dehydration results due to the loss of salt and water from the body.

- Give the dehydrated person O.R.S. (Oral Rehydration Solution). It is prepared by dissolving a pinch of salt and one tablespoon of sugar in a glass of water.





Source : Frank Environmental Studies ( Mizoram Edition )